A Comprehensive Nigerian Tax Guide for Business Growth

If you’re a business owner in Nigeria, understanding the tax system is crucial for your success. Taxes are an important source of government revenue, and complying with Nigerian tax laws is necessary for avoiding penalties and legal trouble. 

In addition, understanding the tax system can help you plan your business finances and make informed decisions about business growth. 

In this comprehensive Nigerian tax guide, we’ll take you through everything you need to know about taxes in Nigeria, including the types of taxes, tax rates, compliance requirements, and tips for managing your taxes.

What is a tax?

A tax is a mandatory payment made by individuals and businesses to the government. Taxes are used to fund public services such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure. In Nigeria, taxes are a crucial source of government revenue, and understanding the tax system is essential for businesses to avoid penalties and legal trouble.

Types of Taxes in Nigeria

In Nigeria, there are various types of taxes that businesses may be required to pay. These include:

1. Corporate Income Tax: This is a tax on the profits earned by a company in Nigeria. The current rate is 30%, and it applies to all companies except those engaged in petroleum operations, which pay a rate of 50%.

2. Value Added Tax (VAT): VAT is a tax on the value added to goods and services at each stage of production and distribution. The current rate is 7.5%, and it is charged on the final price of goods and services consumed in Nigeria.

3. Personal Income Tax: This is a tax on the income of individuals. The tax rate is progressive, with rates ranging from 0% to 24%, depending on the income level.

4. Withholding Tax: This is a tax deducted at source from payments made to suppliers, contractors, and service providers. The current rate is between 5% to 10%.

5. Tertiary Education Tax: This is a tax on the profits of Tertiary Education, and the current rate is 2%.

6. Capital Gains Tax: This is a tax on the profit made from the sale of an asset. The current rate is 10%.

7. Petroleum Profits Tax: The Petroleum Profits Tax (PPT) is a tax levied on the income of companies engaged in upstream petroleum operations in Nigeria. The tax rate for PPT is 50% for non-Joint Ventures and 65.75% for Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs). However, for Joint Ventures, the tax rate is 85%.


Federal and State Taxes in Nigeria

In Nigeria, taxes are collected by both the federal and state governments. The federal government collects taxes on behalf of all states in Nigeria and distributes the revenue to the states according to a formula. State governments are also empowered to collect certain taxes within their jurisdictions. For example, the Lagos State Government collects a tenement rate, which is a tax on property.

Legal Requirements for Paying Taxes in Nigeria

To comply with Nigerian tax laws, businesses must fulfill certain legal requirements. These include registering for taxes, filing tax returns, paying taxes promptly, keeping accurate records, and obtaining tax clearance certificates. 

Businesses must register with the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) within six months of starting operations. They must also file tax returns annually, detailing their income, expenses, and taxes paid during the year. 

The deadline for filing is usually March 31st of the following year. Businesses must pay their taxes promptly to avoid penalties and legal trouble. They must also keep accurate and up-to-date records of their financial transactions, including receipts, invoices, and bank statements. 

Finally, businesses must obtain tax clearance certificates from the FIRS, which show that they have fulfilled their tax obligations.

Import duties in Nigeria

In addition to taxes, businesses in Nigeria may also be required to pay import duties on goods brought into the country. Import duties are charged by the Nigerian Customs Service (NCS) and are calculated based on the value of the goods. 

Importers must provide documentation such as a bill of lading and an import declaration form (IDF) to the NCS to clear their goods.

How to Pay Your Taxes in Nigeria

To pay your taxes in Nigeria, you can use the Remita platform, which is a payment gateway that allows you to pay your taxes online. You can also make payments through commercial banks or designated FIRS offices. It is important to ensure that you have obtained a tax identification number (TIN) before making any tax payments.


Understanding the Nigerian tax system is essential for the growth and success of your business. As a business owner, it is important to prioritize compliance with tax laws and seek professional advice when necessary. 

By understanding the types of taxes, compliance requirements, and how to pay your taxes, you can avoid penalties and legal trouble while planning for the financial growth of your business.

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